Campbeltown One of the four whisky-producing regions of Scotland, Campbeltown is a region lying at the southern end of the Kintyre Peninsular in Argyllshire and is, by far, the smallest of the regions (see "Malt Whisky Regions Map" and "Campbeltown Map"). Although there were once more than thirty distilleries in the region, there are now only three, one currently mothballed (Glen Scotia - light, intense, hint of peat) and two currently in operation (at Springbank - peaty, salty, fruity; and at Longrow, which is a particular type of malt produced occasionally from one of the stills at Springbank - dry, smoky, salty) (compare with "Islay", "Lowlands" and "Highlands" region characteristics). It is not considered necessary to sub-divide the distilleries into Districts. Among the lost distilleries from this region are such as Hazleburn, Dalintober, Benmore, Ardlussa, Dalaruan, Lochead, Glen Nevis, Kinloch, Burnside, Glengyle, Lochruan, Albyn, Scotia, Rieclachan, Glenside, Kyntyre, Campbeltown and Argyll
Caramel A dark brown substance made from sugar is added to some whisky as a colouring agent. Nowadays, most, if not all, Scottish distilleries have ceased this practice.
Cask Strength Whisky bottled at, or near to, the strength it comes out of the cask. This depends upon age and can vary considerably, distillery to distillery, age to age. Some are as low as 55% abv or under whilst others can be as high as 65% abv or more.
Casks Constructed of oak, casks used for whisky maturation come in a variety of sizes:-
Butt               500 litres
Hogshead           250-305 litres
American Barrel    173-191 litres
Quarter            127-159 litres
Octave             45-68 litres

Casks made from new wood are sometimes but very seldom used, preference being given to the re-use of ex-bourbon casks made from American oak and ex-sherry (usually Oloroso) casks made fron Spanish oak because of the additional characteristics they give to the matured whisky. These foreign-sourced casks can arrive as complete casks or broken down into their seperate staves. At the cooperage, either the distillery's own or an independent one, the casks are remade and maintained, sometimes being charred on the inside to improve the release of vanallin fron the wood. When used for the first time for whisky, they are called First Fill casks. They may be re-used again when that fill of whisky has matured. Second Fill and Third Fill usage is not uncommon. A cask can, therefore, have a life of some 30 - 40 years or more in addition to its time maturing bourbon or sherry.
Charcoal Mellowing See "Leaching".
Charger, Receiver A tank usually used to store a liquid prior to passing it on to the next stage of the process. See "Wash Charger", "Low Wines and Feints Charger" and "Spirit Receiver".
Charring The insides of new oak casks are briefly set alight, thus charring them, which adds colour and a smoky flavour to the resultant spirit. It is sometimes necessary to apply the charring process at cooperages for remade or rebuilt casks.
Chill Filtration Filtration of the spirit at low temperature to remove the congeners that cause the clouding which occurs if whisky is allowed to get too cold. However, many would argue that it also filters out some of the individual characteristics that a particular whisky has developed during its progress through the distillation process.
Cistern The latter day equivalent of the Steep.
Cleric Another name for new or new-make spirit. New, unmatured spirit, clear in colour.
Closed Distillery A distillery which has been permenantly closed down, probably because it was uneconomical to run at the time of closure. However, there could still be stocks of whisky from such a distillery maturing in bond which would be bottled and sold at the appropriate time, quite probably with the addition of the word "Rare" on their label. When closure happens, normathe equipment is dismantled and sold off, so it bes very unlikely that the distillery could re-open in its usual form. The buildings and land can be sold off for other use but this then becomes a lost distillery. Whilst the buildings are still present, one can only hope that the distillery could, in the future, be revived.
Column Still See "Patent Still".
Coffey Still See "Patent Still".
Congeners Chemical compounds produced during fermentation and maturation, Congeners include esters, acids, aldehydes and higher alcohols. Strictly speaking, they are impurities, but they give whisky its flavour. Their presence in the final spirit must be carefully judged - too many would make it undrinkable.
Continuous Still See "Patent Still".
Cooper A distillery worker who is responsible for the assembly and maintenance of the casks. In the nineteenth century, probably the highest-paid man at the distillery.
Cooperage A workshop where the casks are made and maintained. Also used as a general term for the casks themselves
Copper (1) The traditional metal from which Pot Stills and some Mash Tuns are made.
Copper (2) The Copper is the vessel in which water is heated, in the Mash House, prior to it being mixed (sparged) with the malt grist either in the steel's masher at the bottom of the Grist Hopper or directly in the Mash Tun itself.
Corn Whiskey (US term) A whiskey made from a mash containing at least 80% corn and, if it is aged at all, must be done so in used or un-charred oak barrels.
Couch (US term) After barley has been soaked in water in the steep to make it germinate it is put into a second tank, the couch, to dry. This stops further growth.
Couch Frame The tank present in some distilleries whereeped barley is stored until it has dried to the correct water content for it to be spread on the floor in the Floor Maltings.
Culm Dried rootlets still attached to the malt grains after they have been dried in the Kiln.
Cut See "Middle Cut".
Cytase Enzyme in barley that breaks down the cell walls, thus making the starch accessible. See also "Amylase", "Diastase" and "Zymase".